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New Locomotives for Silverton Tramway
Railway Accidents in Australia
Decorated Tramcars in San Diego
Progress towards a new Flinders Street Station
When a Czar Travels
Compressed Air Locomotive
Snow-bound in Scotland
Railway travelling in Japan
A one-rail Elevated Railway
Utilising New Zealand's iron resources
Level crossing protection in Europe
Ventilation in underground railway
Metropolitan Railway tunnels
Signalling on the Cronulla line
Dubbo Railway Picnic
Bridal Tram Car
RAILWAY INTRODUCES NEW MOUNTAIN
Silverton Tramway Co. Uses British-Built Steam Engines
With its fortunes linked closely to the prosperity of the western New
South Wales silver lead mines at Broken Hill, the Silverton Tramway
Company recently introduced new motive power for the movement of 1000-ton
ore trains destined for Port Pirie on Spencer's Gulf. South Australia.
Many modern features have been introduced. Streamlining has enhanced the appearance of the new locomotives. The ample boiler capacity provided is quite remarkable for an engine of this power. The firebox is of unusual proportions to allow low grade fuel to be burnt efficiently. Particular attention has been given to the cab to provide the maximum comfort for the engine crew. Dunlopillo seats and carefully arranged controls make for easy operation. Such modern applications as the Hadfield power reverse gear remove the need for the exertion of physical effort by the driver.
Accessibility and maintenance have been borne in mind and 8KF roller bearing axleboxes are provided on the carrying wheels and the tender. Every- thing has been done to eliminate work and to give maximum availability. The ashpan is of the self emptying hopper type and the smokebox is self cleaning.
>Electric light equipment is provided for the headlight and the cab. Attention is also drawn to the extended cab floor by cantilever arrangement.
These locomotives, a product of British design and construction, will rank amongst the most modern type in Australia today and will undoubtedly give a good account of themselves hauling trains over this 3ft. 6in. gauge railway. The Company is to be congratulated in obtaining a modern and economical form of motive power well built to withstand heavy work with the minimum of attention.
The following brief details cover new features in firebox construction etc. noted in the four 4-8-2 narrow-gauge engines delivered to Silverton Tramways recently. From details supplied by MR. R. S. York N.S.W. Representative Beyer Peacock & Co. Ltd.
These modern general purpose locomotives, on a light axleload of 9¾ tons, have been specially designed for maximum economy in operation and maintenance. The boiler is an outstanding feature; very special attention has been paid to its design to allow the slow burning and full length flame of low grade coal.
The inner firebox is of steel of Colville's Double Crown brand, special firebox quality and is of all-welded construction. Increased volume is obtained by a combustion chamber and good circulation and steaming quality is enhanced by the provision of a thermic syphon and two 3" diameter arch tubes. There are twenty-two large tubes 5¾" o.d. and seventy small tubes 2" diameter of solid drawn steel.
The superheater is of the Superheater Co.'s type with ball joint full length elements made from 1 3/8" diameter tubes with integrally forged return bends. Owing to the length of the combustion chamber the distance between tube plates is only 14 feet; hence an ideal-A/S ratio of 1/404 is obtained. An A/S round 1/400 ensures a-free flow of gases round the superheater elements with low back pressure and smokebox vacuum and a high degree of superheat temperature. (The A/S ratio being "A" the tree gas area of the various sections of the flue tube multiplied by their portion of the length of the flue tube and divided .by the total length of the flue, whilst "S" represents the total gas swept surfaces of the flue tube and element.) As there are 22 flues containing the superheater elements and only 70 smoke tubes 2" diameter the free gas area through the flues is 62% of the total tree area through the boiler. It is worthy of note that this figure is considerably higher than in any other locomotive boiler in Australia. The good A/S ratio combined with the high percentage of free area through the flues and the careful thought given to all details in the boiler design have resulted in what is stated to be a remarkably free steaming boiler under all conditions of service.
The grate area is 27 sq. ft. British- made Waugh firebars form the fire- grate and are rocked by hand from the cab, the front portion forming a drop grate.
Reprinted from Railway Transportation, February, 1952
RAILWAY ACCIDENTS IN AUSTRALIAEngland is not the only country where lives are lost and property destroyed by the infatuation of a small minority of railway directors who persist in using a complicated and unreliable form of brake apparatus. Although, thanks to the independence and superior practical insight of the chief railway engineers in this country, all our principal railways are supplied with vacuum brakes, there are still a few roads where the air pressure brake is used, and, consequently, we are subjected to such disasters as those at Lowmoor Tunnel, Blackburn, and Manor Park.
The Sydney papers record a terrible accident at Zigzag, thus commented upon by the Sydney Morning Herald.
“We have, fortunately, been so free from railway accidents in this colony, that the news of such an occurrence creates a feeling of surprise akin to that with which we might hear of a shipwreck. Accidents, however, it has been wisely remarked, will happen on the best-regulated railways ; and, if for that reason only, those who are directly responsible for the safe management of the trains in motion, should be always on their guard against them. The disposition to trust to, luck which so often manifests itself among men engaged in dangerous occupations, is probably a more frequent cause of disaster than is generally supposed. The fact, however, that our list of railway accidents is a singularly small one, goes to show that the men in charge of the New South Wales trains are fully aware of their responsibilities. The accident which took place yesterday on the Zigzag will, of course, form the subject of official inquiry, and among the questions which will then occupy attention, the conduct of the engine driver and the guard will necessarily have to be considered. The action of the Westinghouse brake has been a subject of discussion among railway experts for many years past, and opinions have been much divided as to its merits. Whether yesterday's accident was attributable to defect in the brakes, or to the slippery state of the rails owing to the recent rains, or to any want of caution on the part of the driver in proceeding on the journey after notice that something was wrong, remains to be determined. At the present moment it would seem, judging from the evidence before us, that the unfortunate result was brought about by a combination of these circumstances, although in what proportion it would be difficult even to conjecture. The line of route is known to be dangerous, in the sense that danger may always be anticipated there, and that great care is essential to the safe management of the traffic. When it was found, at an early period of the journey, that the brakes were not acting, and consequently that the driver had little or no command over his train, that officer would certainly have been justified in declining to take the risk of proceeding any further. With slippery rails and useless brakes, a train running down the steep inclines of the Zigzag might be expected to become unmanageable ; and in that state every mile of the running would be full of danger, which neither skill nor experience could avoid."
The particulars are given by several witnesses. We select the following accounts:—"The No. 32 up train, otherwise known as the tourists' train, which leaves Bathurst at about 4 o'clock in the morning, ran into the buffer-stops at the upper points on the Zigzag, on this side of the Blue Mountains, near Lucasville. The train was damaged, and two ladies and a boy were hurt. A special engine, van, and carriages, and a medical man, were at once obtained from Penrith, and the line was cleared for one train to proceed. It was not found necessary to send a medical man from Sydney, as the injuries were not supposed to be of a very serious nature, but a member of the Medical Board was in attendance at the railway station at Redfern when the train arrived. The train in question was timed to reach Sydney at 11.35 a.m., and, therefore, the accident must have occurred about 10 o'clock.
"A later account says :—The train which met with the accident left Glenbrook at 10 o'clock yesterday morning, being 10 minutes late. When it arrived at the top of the point of the Lapstone Zigzag the rails were found to be very * greasy,' owing to a heavy mist prevailing at the time. The train, composed of nine carriages, became unmanageable, although the driver and guard applied both air and hand brakes, and finally ran into what is known as the ‘top buffer' of the Zigzag. The shock wrecked the engine and severely damaged two carriages, besides injuring many of the passengers. As there was a telephone at Lucasville, near the scene of the accident, a message was sent from that place to Glenbrook; thence the occurrence was telegraphed to Penrith, and at 10 minutes past 11 o'clock a relief train was sent out with Dr. Swayne, of Penrith, on board, and the passengers transferred into it and brought to Sydney, arriving at Redfern at a quarter to 2 o'clock yesterday afternoon. Dr. Woodward met the train at the station, and attended to the wants of the passengers. The gradient at the point of the road where the accident occurred is i in 33. The Westinghouse air-brake was used.
"A gentleman who was in the train states that the brakes worked badly, owing to the slippery state of the metals. On approaching the ' top buffer' the necessary brake pressure could not be brought to bear on the train, which ran into the buffer with considerable force. Many of the passengers were stunned for a while in consequence of the violence of the collision, and much excitement and confusion prevailed. It is also said that the train overshot the mark at one or two stopping-places on the way down from Wentworth. It is believed that the driver did all he could to avoid the accident, but he was powerless to arrest the progress of the train, as the slippery condition of the rails prevented the brake power from being properly applied."
Reprinted from Railway Engineering, June, 1886
On the top of the motor car was placed a mimic throne, covered by a canopy which was tastefully decorated with electric lights and bunting. On the throne was seated a Goddess of Liberty. and behind her stood a young man representing Uncle Sam. On either side of the goddess stood sentinels, one uniformed as a soldier and another as a sailor, representing the army and navy defending liberty.
Reprinted from Street Railway Journal, February, 1897
Reprinted from Railway Budget, February, 1899
A RAILWAY MAN'S STORY
On the last occasion of the Second Alexander's leaving the Crimea, my informant was in charge of the second train. "Merely as a matter of personal curiosity," continued the ex-superintendent, "my engineer colleague in control of the first train and myself quietly took such close observations as to assure ourselves that his Majesty was in the train first despatched. We had a fearful night of it owing to a sudden snow-storm and blizzard which overtook us just beyond Simferopol. After infinite trouble with the snow-blocked track we reached the sectional terminus about 5 a.m., several hours late. Immediately before us the snowdrifts had become impassable, but I was happy in behoving that the Emperor's train ahead of us had got through safely. A few minutes later, while shouting some directions to the driver and machinists amid the driving and roaring of the blizzard, we heard one of the coach-doors blow open and the sound of smashing crockery. Suddenly the Minister of the Court was by our side, and apostrophising us in all kinds of grossly reproachful epithets for the stoppage and delay. Did we not know that we were carrying his Imperial Majesty the Gossudar? &c. I was certainly greatly astonished at this intelligence.
"The Minister was still storming and fuming when the tall figure of Alexander II., loosely wrapped in a long fur pelisse, appeared in our midst. He took in the situation at a glance. The driver, machinists and myself looked like so many forlorn Esquimaux. We were partly encased ia ice and frozen snow. Laying a restraining hand on the Minister's shoulder, his Majesty said, "Not another word! Do you not see how helpless we all are in God's hands? Whilst you and I and the rest of us have been comfortably sleeping in our berths, these poor fellows have been battling with elements through this terrible night for our convenience and safety. You should rather thank them for their noble and persevering efforts, and not reproach them for what is really God's visitation." The Emperor then addressed to us some touching words of thanks and sympathy, and returned to the Imperial coupe. With the assistance of a couple of snow ploughs we subsequently got the train through to Moscow, with about 18 hours' delay. As a memento of that memorable night the engineer-Superintendent pointed to a decoration he was wearing, and took from his pocket a gold chronometer, bearing the monogram of the Imperial donor; his companions were similary rewarded."
Among other things, my informant said that during the last two reigns the drivers of the Imperial trains were never allowed to use the whistle. Between one engine and another the drivers signalled by hand motions, and in the night by lamp signals. Under the block system the track is always kept clear for the Imperial trains. No such secrecy is now observed with regard to the particular train in which the Emperor Nicholas II travels, and it is devoutly to be hoped that the beneficently reforming policy of the young Monarch will obviate all necessity for resorting to such secret and clandestine methods in the future.
Reprinted from Railway Budget, February, 1899
The General Electric Company has also closed a contract through its Australian representative, Arthur W. Jones, for the equipment of the Government tramway system of Sidney [sic] New South Wales. This contract calls for twenty-eight car equipments and four 850 k.w. generators and the contract price is about $200,000.
Reprinted from Street Railway Journal, June, 1897
Reprinted from Railway Budget, March, 1899
Reprinted from Street Railway Journal, March, 1897
The wheels are 42 ins. in diameter; the dimensions of the cylinder are 13 ins. in diameter by 20 ins. stroke, and the storage- reservoir has a capacity of 175 cu. ft. This, it is estimated, will allow the locomotive to make the round trip between Rector Street and Fifty-eighth Street with 20 per cent reserve. The reservoir is composed of Mannesmaun tubes with a diameter of 9 ins. and having various lengths, from 14 ft. to 20 ft. 6 ins. The thickness of the tube is 9 ins. The tubes are rolled from solid ingots according to the regular Mannesmann process.
The air is stored in the reservoir at 2000 lbs. pressure. It is used in the cylinder at 200 lbs. pressure with cut-off at 10% stroke. In 5 stroke. Ix passing from the reservoir to the cylinder it traverses the usual hot water reheater and enters the cylinder at a temperature of from 200 to 300 degs. The water is kept heated by a small coal fire. But little fuel is required to maintain this, as will be appreciated when it is stated that only an ordinary scuttleful of coal is carried by the engine.
A novel feature of the engine, as will be seen, is the location of the cylinder. This is directly under the cab, giving a short lead for the heated air. The valve mechanism is extremely simple and can be seen in the engraving under the cab. It is operated by the wheel which can be seen through the window of the cab. The weight of the entire locomotive equipped is 47,000 lbs. The power station will be located at 100 Greenwich Street.
Reprinted from Street Railway Journal, May, 1897
The severe weather in Scotland is making travelling a rather uncertain, undertaking. The two trains on the Caithness line, which were snowed up on Wednesday the 1st [January, 1879] remained embedded until the 4th. The passengers who were in the first train made their way to a station, and the surfacemen who were on the relief train are believed to have got shelter in a “bothy“. They were well supplied with provisions, and it was remarked last Saturday there is no fear that they will starve. The 12.40 train from Perth on Saturday morning, 28th ult., came to a stand in a wreath near Dava station, and the line was blocked at this point, where the snow is about 5ft. deep and very dense. The two engines were uncoupled, and attacked the wreath, making their way through it, and leaving the passengers and carriages behind. The engines got on a distance of half a mile, when they were completely blocked in a second wreath, and the drift closed in on them before and behind. A snow plough and gangs of men were set to work to dig out the passenger train. It was half-past six in the morning when the train got blocked, and it was not extricated till four in the afternoon. The passengers, twenty in number, had to remain the whole day exposed to the fury of the storm at the bleak spot where the train stuck. The train reached Inverness at eight p.m., having been nineteen hours on its way from Perth.
Reprinted from The Engineer, 10th January, 1879
RAILWAY TRAVELLING IN JAPAN.
As we [Editors of Railway Engineer] have lately been giving some drawings of rolling stock (designed by Mr. B. F. Wright) in use on the Japan Government Railways, we think the following description of a railway journey taken on one of the railways in that country may be interesting. The cars we illustrated, however, would appear to be superior to those here mentioned. The account is by a correspondent of the Boston Transcript, and relates to a short journey from Kanagawa to Tokio, a distance of 18 miles.
Trains are running between the two stations every hour and a quarter during the day, leaving both stations simultaneously. The whole equipment is English. The cars are divided into three classes. Even the first-class cars are decidedly plain. These are divided into three compartments, The second- class cars would hardly be used on a horse-railroad in Boston. They are as plain as plain can be, and made just like a horse- car, having two long seats on the sides facing each other. The seat are upholstered with the same kind of matting which the Japanese use on their floors. The third-class cars have simply plain benches for seats. The exterior of all three classes is the same. The engines are smaller than the shifting engines in the Boston depots. The time required for the 18 miles' ride is 57 minutes. Everything pertaining to the road is kept in the best condition. The road-bed is like a floor; the cars are clean; the stations are clean; all the officials are uniformed. I never knew one of them to be in any way impolite. Passengers are not allowed to cross the track except by the bridges overhead. Following English custom, the trains run on the left-hand track. No baggage is allowed to go free except what one can take in his hand. You can take no living thing into the train, not even a canary, without paying an extra price. Posted up in the stations is a notice to the effect that the Government does not run its roads for the transportation of dogs, but if dogs must travel provision has been made for them. So every station is provided with boxes latticed on top, in which poodle or mastiff can be transported for a definite sum. I understand that when it is necessary to transport a dead body an extra car is put on for the purpose.
Let us start on our 18 miles' ride from the Tokio station. It is a fine large building built of stone, having two large entrances in front. The waiting rooms are furnished with the daily native and foreign papers. Five minutes before the train starts a warning bell is rung. The ticket office is styled a "booking office," and a notice tells you that you must be "booked" before you can enter the train. Just before the train starts the bell is again rung in the station and the doors closed, so there is no possible chance for a belated passenger to "run for the train," and possibly get run over by the train. There are no side doors, either, through which you can dodge the official. Having booked yourself, or purchased your ticket, you are allowed to pass through a very narrow passageway to the outward-bound train, showing your ticket as you pass. Although there is no gold-leaf or bird's-eye maple on the cars, there are other arrangements that more than compensate for this loss of elegance. One of these is that by buying a round-trip ticket to any station you get a discount of 50 per cent. on return ticket—tickets good for one day only. Fare to Yokohama, first-class, $1 ; round-trip, $1.50; second-class, 60 cents ; round-trip, 90 cents. No official goes with the train; no brakeman in dulcet tones whispers out the name of the next station. The only brake on the train is on a car made specially for that purpose, and attached to the rear of the engine. No conductor shouts, " Tickets, please," and when he has finished his rounds sits down by the fair miss who goes daily for her music lessons. Every passenger is expected to enter the class car for which he holds a ticket. If he doesn’t do this and he is found out, there is a penalty for his misdemeanour.
When it is time for the train to start, an official on the platform blows a little whistle, the steam engine blows a shrill whistle, which would be terrific if it were only powerful enough, and off we go. And now we see one advantage over the average American railroad—there is not the slightest jerk in starting; indeed, you never know when you are really in motion unless you look at objects outside the window. The train glides (that just expresses it), not swiftly to be sure, for if it were swift, probably the Japs would condemn it. Nothing upsets a native like swiftness—time is no object here.
Reprinted from Railway Engineer, November, 1883
A ONE-RAIL ELEVATED RAILWAY.
A company in Boston, U.S., have obtained a charter to construct one mile of this kind of road in the city of Cambridge. An engine and car adapted to the structure are also to be built. If the road, when completed, is approved by the Railroad Commissioners, the projectors will be allowed to build such roads in Boston with the permission of the city government.
The structure consists of a single rail elevated upon a line of posts 14 feet from the ground. It is called a single rail, though perhaps a more correct description would be two rails placed one above the other at a distance of 4 feet, and connected by a series of braces. The supports or posts are placed at distances of 45 feet, and are almost exactly like those of the New York Elevated Railroad, except that the lower end is firmly encased in concrete and rests upon a solid bed of concrete several feet underground. The truck frame of the cars is placed astride the rail, like a saddle upon the back of a horse, and each truck frame has six wheels. Upon either side, two of these wheels run upon the lower part of the rail, inclining upward and outward from the point of contact at an angle of 45 degrees. The other two wheels are placed horizontally under the car, and level with the top of the rail, along the sides of which they run, one upon each side. By means of hydraulic pressure applied from the engine, they are made to clasp the rail tightly, and by this power of traction the forward or backward motion is secured. Each wheel has an independent axis of its own, and the opposing wheels are always kept at right angles with the rails, regardless of curves. Some of the curves may be very sharp; steep grades may be overcome by means of the traction power. The truck frames of the locomotive are like those of the car, with the connecting-rods attached to the horizontal wheels upon either side of the rails. The pressure of the wheels upon the rails is such as to make it almost impossible for them to leave it, but in case this should happen the car could not leave the track, but would drop 1½ inches and slide along, resting upon the top of the rail, the truck frame serving as a substantial brace upon both sides. The cars are cylindrical in form, and built of iron.
Reprinted from Railway Engineer, February, 1886
UTILISING NEW ZEALAND'S IRON RESOURCES
A remarkable invitation is addressed to the ironmasters of Europe and America by the Government of New Zealand. The two islands which form that colony are, as is generally known, rich in iron and coal of excellent quality. The Government has within a few years constructed over 1000 miles of railroad, all the materials for which, except the sleepers, have been carried out from England. Yet the Public Works Department of the Colony is even still, with so many lines laid down, only apparently at the outset of its labours, for the Minister of Public Works, the Hon. James MacAndrew, has determined to make a bold experiment to naturalise the iron industry in the colony, and has called for tenders for 100,000 tons of steel rails, or any portion thereof, to be manufactured in the colony from New Zealand ores.
A pamphlet containing full information on the subject, illustrated by maps and plans, has been published by order of the Government, and may be had from the Agent-General of the Colony, Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G., at 7, Westminster-chambers, by ironmasters and others desirous of obtaining authentic information on the subject.
Reprinted from The Engineer, 21st March, 1879Along with diesel-electric locomotives, D4-class tank engines take a hand with shunting duties in the VR's Melbourne yard. Built originally for working suburban trains, these steam units have all been assigned to yard duties throughout the system.
Reprinted from The Engineer, 8th February, 1889
“On the occasion of the return to London of the guards from the Soudan, a large crowd congregated at the railway Station, and immediately after there was the usual rush to get away again. One of the heavily loaded trains on the City and Waterloo underground line became stalled, and to escape suffocation the 300 or more passengers made. their way out of the tunnel on foot. This road is scarcely a mile long and connects the Waterloo station with a point in the city near the Bank of England; the line dips down from each terminus and crosses under the Thames. There are separate tunnels for the two tracks, and they are but little larger in cross-section than the oars. Starting from one terminus the car is carried for two-thirds of the distance by gravity, the ascent at the other end being by electricity. No provision for ventilating the tunnel is made, the car itself setting up a current of air; in this case when the motors were unable to mount the final grade, and the train stopped, the air soon became foul, and the passengers were panic stricken."
Reprinted from Railway Budget, March, 1899
Reprinted from The Engineer, 12th April, 1889
GIVES 13 TROUBLE-FREE YEARS OF SERVICE ON BUSY BEACH LINE
The first large installation of automatic signalling over single track was made by the NSWGR in 1925 on the then newly opened line from Molong to Dubho in Western New South Wales. This was intended mainly for the movement of eastbound trains between Dubbo and Orange, thus avoiding the long, steep grades of the original mainline via Wellington, as at that time the heavy traffic from the Cobar mines had created difficulties in train operation.
Following the closing down of the mines some years later this pioneer installation was abandoned and electric staff working substituted, due to the lighter traffic and several crossing loops were closed and materials reclaimed.
In October, 1926, full accelerated electric train services were commenced between the City and Sutherland, in the Sydney metropolitan area, and two months later, in association with the opening of the city underground railway to St. James, the branch line to National Park, which carried heavy weekend traffic, was wired for electric traction. This is a surface line, 1.2 miles in length, with undulating grades, laid with single track, leaving the Illawarra line a short distance south of Sutherland. The latter station is 15 miles from Central.
In order to deal with the additional number of trains the former electric staff system was withdrawn and track block automatic signalling introduced in its place.
Traffic trends are seasonal, heavy during the summer, particularly at week-ends, and rather lighter at other times of the year; the busy season lasting from October to end of March. It was also desirable that adequate provision should be made for normal annual increase in passenger traffic, particularly as this outer-suburban district is expanding rapidly. Accordingly it was decided to provide two crossing places only, and the time required to cross trains was reduced to a minimum.
The Sutherland-Cronulla line, opened in December, 1939, is 6.23 miles in length, with crossing loops located at Gymea and Caringbah, the respective sections being Sutherland - Gymea (1.98 miles), Gymea - Caringbah (2.10 miles) and Caringbah - Cronulla (2.60 miles). The sectional running times are 5 minutes each in either direction, and this includes stops at intermediate stations at Kirrawee, Miranda and Woolooware, located in each of the above sections respectively.
The layout at each crossing station is identical, with down and up tracks on each side of an island platform. The general working arrangement is extremely simple, and all points and signals are operated by miniature levers at a control panel in the stationmaster's office. The interlocking consists of a small five lever frame, in which all train movements are controlled by Nos. 1 and 5 levers, Nos. 2 and 4 are spare, and No. 3 is the closing key provided for switching out when the station is unattended. Lever lights are provided above each lever, which indicate that the locking mechanism under its control has functioned correctly to each move.
The movement of all trains is shown on the indicator diagram, which is of the 'spot-light' type, sited above the control panel. It shows all signals and points, and signal aspects are repeated with red and green lights, while white lights indicate when points are in normal or reverse positions. Additional information is given on the diagram in respect of the direction of the train on the single track, on each side of the station, i.e., a red light and a red arrow indicates a train arriving and a green light and arrow for trains departing. White lights situated at each end of the diagram shows when a train has been accepted at the station in advance.
Signals at each crossing station consist of down and up Home and down and up Starting, the last two also acting as Accept signals for the station in advance. All signals arc protected by train stops, with an intermediate train stop located at the arrival end of the station, which functions in respect of the Starting signal. Trains passing the Home signal at caution are required not to exceed 25 m.p.h. average speed entering the station, when the intermediate train stop will clear before the train passes it. Should this speed be exceeded the train will be tripped.
At Gymea No. 1 lever controls all train movements between that station and Sutherland. When placed in the down position it will clear the Accept signal (Sutherland's down second Home and Starting signal - subject to that station's control) and down Home signal. In this case the loop points are not affected as they are lying in their normal position for down trains. This will permit a down train from Sutherland to proceed to the Starting signal at Gymea.
In its up position. No. 1 lever, following the operation of Sutherland's Accept lever, reverses the points (up main to main) and clears the up Starting signal for a train to proceed to Sutherland.
Similarly, No. 5 lever controls all train movements on the section Gymea-Caringbah. and these arrangements, in a like manner at Caringbah, are responsible tor train working in the section Caringbah-Gronulla.
Trains may be accepted by Gymea and Caringbah as far as the Sutherland end of their stations in respect to down trains, and the Cronulla end in respect, to up trains. Trains standing at station platforms are protected by respective Home signals showing stop indications, and train stops.
When ready to proceed the guard places a key into the departure switch, subject to the indicating light over the switch showing, turns the key and holds it over tor three seconds. This causes the Home signal for the opposite direction to show stop, reverses the points and clears the Starting signal.
Train operation on the steeply graded main line between Como and Sutherland is at times hindered by delays to down trains awaiting line clear before crossing the gauntlet track over the George's River bridge at Como. This, in turn, affects up trains on the Cronulla branch making crossings, and the small amount of additional time allowed in this direction enables normal scheduled times to be regained.
In actual practice the time taken for crossing trains is reduced to a matter of seconds. Recent observations show the time from the arrival of the second train to departure of the first (up) train, ranged from eight to 15 seconds, with the second train completing station business in about 20-25 seconds.
In its 13 years of operation, the installation has given little trouble and has fully demonstrated the wisdom of its adoption.
Reprinted from Railway Transportation, January, 1953