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AUSTRALIAN RAILWAYS IN COLOUR
DIESELS REPLACE STEAM POWER ON MIDLAND RAILWAY
FREEWAY CONSTRUCTION DOES NOT SOLVE TRAFFIC PROBLEMS
SPECIAL OVERHEAD DURING GRADE ELIMINATION
TALES OF THE RAILWAY PRINTING DEPARTMENT
ONE GAUGE SYDNEY—MELBOURNE LINE SURVEY STARTED
MELBOURNE TRAMWAY CONSTRUCTION
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The recent completion of an order for seven 790 h.p. English Electric diesel-electric locomotives has enabled Australia's largest private railway undertaking, the Midland Railway Co. of Western Australia, to completely dieselize its mainline traffic operations.Vic.
Connecting with the WAGR's system at Midland Junction (10 miles east from Perth), the Midland Company's track extends for 277 miles in a northerly direction to Walkaway, where connection is again made with the Government lines, 19 miles south of the important town and seaport of Geraldton.
The Midland line passes through good arable farming land given over to wheat and wool raising and the principle freights carried are wheat, grain and minerals. The Company operates about eight tabled freight trains each way per week plus extras as required whilst buses are used for through passenger traffic between Perth and Geraldton. One overnight passenger train is run in each direction weekly.
The design and manufacture of these locomotives was undertaken at the Rocklea, Qld., works of the English Electric Co. of Australia Pty. Ltd., with power unit and control equipment supplied by the Preston works of The English Electric Co. Ltd., U.K.
The locomotives were shipped by sea to Fremantle and on arrival there were hauled dead over WAGR tracks to the MR's shops at Midland Junction where they were cleaned, painted, dried out and prepared for service.
The Midland units are similar in design and appearance to the ten 750 h.p. shunters supplied by English Electric to the SAR in 1956/7. The main differences have been occasioned by the lighter axle load, smaller loading gauge and the Company's use of vacuum braking equipment.
The locomotive is carried on two three-axle fully sprung fabricated bogies. Each bogie is equipped with two nose-suspended traction motors mounted on the outer axles and driving the road wheels through single reduction spur gearing. Timken roller-bearing, grease lubricated axleboxes are fitted with underhung housings for accommodating the ends of the equaliser beams.
A Hasler speedometer transmitter is mounted to the left axlebox cover of the rear idler axle. All thrust and rubbing surfaces of the bogies are provided with manganese steel liners. The wheels are of the rolled steel disc type with a diameter of 37½in. over tread.
The superstructure is carried on all-welded underframe, of which the top plate is unbroken as far as possible to prevent oil leaking down onto the traction motors and avoid the penetration of dust blown up from the track. A narrow hood and full width cab at one end comprise the superstructure. The hood is divided into three compartments.
The nose compartment houses the traction motor blower for the leading bogie, air compressor and exhauster, air reservoirs, certain brake equipment and the engine-cooling water-header tank.
Air is drawn through two vertically mounted radiator panels into the radiator compartment from which it is circulated through the engine room; the spent air being expelled through the roof by the radiator fan. A gear box in the radiator compartment converts the horizontal drive from the main engine to a vertical drive for the roof mounted cooling fans. In the bulkhead between the nose and radiator compartments is the air compressor after cooler.
The engine room contains the power unit and its associated equipment. The traction motor blower for the rear bogie, voltage regulator and load regulator are also located at the rear of this compartment. In the bulkhead, between the engine room and cab, is the control cubicle.
Engine room roof hatch is removable for lifting out the power unit and a sliding opening in the hatch above the engine gives access for maintenance of cylinder heads. Removable doors are provided in the hood sides.
Cooling air for the main and auxiliary generators and for ventilating the engine room is drawn into the rear of the engine room compartment through three oil-wetted metal filters of 4in. thickness. The cooling air flows to the front of the engine room and through apertures into the radiator compartment from whence it is expelled through the roof by the radiator fan. Engine air and cooling air for the traction motors is drawn through similar filters mounted on the sides of the superstructure and is thus at ambient temperature.
The driving cab extends over the full width of the locomotive with windows arranged to give a clear view of the track in both directions. Cab doors lead to the rear platform and to the walkway on the left side of the engine room. Two driving positions are provided and these are placed on the right side of the cab when facing the direction of travel. The locomotives may be operated in multiple unit from any driving position.
The batteries are housed in two well ventilated battery boxes placed on the walkways either side of the engine room. Provision is made for starting the engine of one locomotive from the batteries of another. The 500-gallon fuel tank is underslung and situated between the two bogies. Lockheed Avery self-sealing drip-proof fillers are mounted on each side,
Main EngineThe main power unit is an English Electric 6 SRKT four-stroke, pressure-charged, diesel engine, having six 10 x 12in. cylinders, arranged vertically in line, and rated at 790 b.h.p. at 900 r.p.m. for altitudes up to 500ft. above sea level and in ambient temperatures up to 85° F. The engine is coupled to a Type EE.827 main generator with overhung auxiliary generator.
Fuel is injected mechanically into open combustion chambers and the engine is pressure-charged by one Napier-type MS/200 exhaust gas turbo-blower. A pneumatic-hydraulic governor is fitted so that a hydraulically-operated servo-piston controls the fuel pump rack linkage while engine speeds are varied pneumatically. Working in conjunction with the governor is a load regulator which matches the generator output to the available horsepower of the engine at any given speed and also initiates two stages of traction motor field weakening.
An engine-driven centrifugal pump circulates water through the engine and radiators. The water header tank is equipped with a float switch which shuts the engine down in the event of low water level. High water temperatures are detected by a thermostatic switch giving visual indication in the cab.
One electrically motored priming pump and two engine-driven pumps circulate the lube oil through the system. On pressing the start button, oil is admitted to the governor which moves the fuel pump racks towards full fuel position and permits almost instant firing once the engine starts to turn.
At this stage the engine-driven oil pumps take over from the priming pump and rapidly build up the pressure in the system. A pressure-operated switch then opens to shut down the priming pump. Should the oil pressure fall below the maximum safe working pressure a second switch operates to shut down the engine.
If the oil is cold and the differential pressure across the radiators is sufficiently great, a valve opens and allows the oil to by-pass the radiators. From the high pressure pump, oil flows through a strainer to the engine lubricating oil system. Constant pressure is maintained in the system by a high-pressure relief valve with the exception that oil to the valve gear is supplied at reduced pressure.
Fuel oil is drawn from the tank through a check valve and strainer and delivered by the fuel transfer pump to the fuel filter, damping vessel, air separator and fuel buss rail. The air separator contains a relief valve which maintains a constant pressure in the buss rail and in so doing returns any entrapped air back to the main tank with the excess fuel. The fuel damping vessel protects the supply pump against pressure impulses in the line originating from the opening of the injection pump spill ports. C.A.V. fuel injection equipment is fitted with one pump and one injector per cylinder. Edge-type filters are incorporated in the inlet connections of each injector.
Control EquipmentThe auxiliary generator provides power for the control of circuits, lighting, battery charging, traction motor blower motors, air compressor and exhauster motors and fuel transfer and lube oil priming pump motors. Control voltage is maintained at 110 volts by a Newton-Derby carbon pile voltage regulator.
Four EE.525 six-pole, series-wound, d.c. traction motors are connected permanently in series paralleled across the main generator. Two stages of field weakening are available; this is introduced by the load regulator when it reaches the maximum field position, and discarded by a current relay when the motor current becomes excessive.
The load regulator ensures that the load on the engine remains constant for that particular speed. Variation in engine speed (and thus power output) is achieved by moving the controller handle, notch by notch, so that any engine output from first notch power to full load can be selected.
Automatic protection and/or indication is afforded in the event of wheel slip, low water level, high water temperature, low oil pressure, blower motor failure, low main reservoir pressure, loss of vacuum in train pipe, earth fault, or traction motor overload. The motors of either bogie can be isolated should an electrical fault occur in one of them.
The locomotives are equipped with air brakes, and an exhauster creates the vacuum for operating the train brakes. An independent air brake valve at each driving position permits separate braking of the locomotive when running light, stabling, or holding trains stationary on grades.
Compressed air for the locomotive brakes, pneumatically operated control equipment, horns, sanders and window wipers is supplied by a motor-driven Westinghouse-type E.25.A compressor.
The train line vacuum is maintained at 21in. Hg by a Westinghouse-type 4V.110G exhauster driven by a two speed electric motor. The exhauster is normally run at a maintaining speed sufficient to sustain the required vacuum. When a vacuum brake application is made, a vacuum/air proportional valve connected to the train pipe, admits air to the locomotive brake cylinders at a pressure proportional to the decrease in vacuum. When the brake valve is placed in the release position the exhauster is run at full speed to restore the vacuum in the train pipe for quick release of the brakes.
Clasp-type brakes are fitted on the motored wheels and air brake cylinders are located above the axleboxes of motored axles to operate the brake blocks on each wheel independently. A hand brake is provided in the driver's cab and brakes the motored axles of the rear bogie.
Deadman protection is afforded by the fitting of pedals at each driving position and either pedal must be depressed while running or the vacuum in the train pipe will be destroyed.
Electro-pneumatic sanders are mounted on each bogie for either direction of travel and are operated by foot switches placed at the driver's feet. Eight sand boxes are incorporated in the platforms at the front and rear of the locomotive and under the walkways at either end of the battery boxes. Two pneuphonic horns and two window wipers are fitted.
Reprinted from Railway Transportation, August, 1959
No city in the Western world had been able to demonstrate that the construction of freeways, in metropolitan areas, solved traffic problems, or ultimately, did anything but wreck central business districts.U.S.A.
Melbourne's Transportation Plan is overweighted towards freeway construction.
If an additional $700m. were transferred from roads and parking to railway works, it would be possible to build 100 miles of express railway track at $7m. a mile, while an additional $70m. would provide 140 first-class suburban trains.
An additional $20m. spent on suburban parking stations adjacent to rail stations would encourage private commuter cars to stay out of the heavily congested areas.
These comments from Mr. R. A. Gardner, Honorary Secretary of the Town and Country Planning Association Victoria, resulted from a lengthy in-depth study of the Metropolitan Transportation Committee's report and recommendations covering transport developments in Melbourne up to 1985.
The study was made by the Council of the TCPA and a special sub-committee.
Mr. Gardner said the Melbourne Transportation Plan proposed an expenditure of $2,261m. on roads and parking (86 per cent of the total) and $355m. on public transport (14 per cent).
If the allocation of the total proposed expenditure were made according to the TCPA study, rail, tram and bus would then account for 44 per cent of the total, and roadway and parking construction 56 per cent.
Mr. Gardner pointed out that the capacity of a rapid transit trainload was 48,000 persons per hour, one way, and to achieve the same movement of people by freeways 21.3 traffic lanes would be required.
Melbourne's railway network was basically good and had the potential for carrying commuter traffic in far larger numbers than at present, but the system was run-down and starved for funds.
Reprinted from RoA Network, October, 1970
By James Scott
Superintendent of Overhead Construction,
Grade-crossing elimination work of the Pennsylvania Railroad confronted the Cleveland Railway with an unusual problem during the past year. There were three of these crossings eliminated on the trolley lines at Woodland, Quincy and Central Avenues. The surface railroad lines at these points originally consisted of four tracks, but during the reconstruction all steam traffic was operated over two tracks, while a trestle was constructed over the other two. The construction of trestles, the elevating of switches and spurs extended over a period of more than ten months. During this time, special overhead construction was necessary on the electric lines, which were kept in continual operation.U.K.
The method of reconstruction used made it necessary for the railway to maintain the trolley wire and guard at a height of 22 ft. over the two tracks which were in use for steam road traffic and then to drop to a height of about 15 ft. in order to pass under the trestle. This was particularly difficult as the trestle was but 6 ft. west of the steam line tracks. The construction used is shown in the accompanying illustrations.
One of the most difficult problems that had to be solved was to provide for the action of the trolley wheel and pole while a car passed under the construction in the direction from the steam road track toward the trestle. Due to the sharp drop of the overhead and the close proximity of the trestle, the pole came in contact with the bridge before the wheel started down the incline of the trolley wire. It was, of course, most desirable to have such a construction that the wheel would not leave the wire and also so that it would not be necessary to stop the car while the conductor pulled the trolley pole down.
Careful consideration of the problem showed that while it was not possible to prevent the trolley wheel from leaving the wire, it was possible to arrange a construction so that the wheel would be automatically replaced on the wire and at the same time keep the circuit from being broken. A bronze bridge approach pan was placed on the trestle so as to extend a few inches beyond the edge of the trough. This provided clearance for the trolley wire and pole. As the pan had a beveled edge, a roller effect was given when the pole made contact. The bridge pan was V-shaped with sides 1½ in. deep and an opening at the apex where the switch approach led onto the trolley wire. The wire was supported through the trough by means of barn hangers and was led through a groove on the top of the pan and then out by means of an ordinary switch approach.
When the trolley wheels passed from the high to the low section of the wire they followed the wire until the pole made contact with the pan. The wheels were then forced away from the wire as the car proceeded and operating current was fed through the bronze pan to the pole. As the car proceeded the pole slid along the pan until the wheel came in contact and was then directed through the V onto the trolley wire. This provided a continuous circuit for current collection and no trouble from dewirement was experienced.
Reprinted from Electric Railway Journal, 6 June, 1925
The Great Northern Railway some time ago decided to do its own printing, and a factory has been erected at Holloway, fitted up with modern plant, and a portion of the company's printing is now done there. This means a considerable saving to the shareholders, and is to be commended. On the other hand, the London, Chatham and Dover Railway, previous to the fusion with the South-Eastern Railway, did its own printing, but now the printing works have been dismantled and the whole of the printing for the two railways is done by outside firms.Vic.
This retrograde movement of the Managing Committee of the South-Eastern and Chatham Railway is surprising, as the late Mr. Morgan, secretary of the London, Chatham and Dover Railway, had informed us that, acting on the advice of Sir Sydney Waterlow, a practical printer, and a director of the London, Chatham and Dover Railway, "the directors came to the conclusion that it was distinctly to the company's advantage that the [printing] department should be maintained. It was proved by the inquiry that no branch of the labour could be done at less cost outside."
South-Eastern and Chatham Railway shareholders would appear entitled to know why their printing works have been closed, and the work given to outside firms. For whose benefit was the alteration made? Certainly not for the shareholders.
Reprinted from Railway Magazine, January, 1901
A division of the costs for the survey of the railway from Albury to Melbourne with a view to gauge standardisation between these two cities has been approved by both Commonwealth and Victorian Governments.Vic.
The Commonwealth will contribute on a pound to pound basis towards the cost of the survey, which has been estimated at £25,000.
This was announced by the Minister for Labour. Mr. Holt, in the House of Representatives on April 9.
He said that the Victorian Premier, Mr. Bolte, had sought a grant of £25,000 from the Federal Government to enable the survey to be made. Mr. Bolte had agreed to the Commonwealth's proposal, Mr. Holt added.
Mr. Holt was replying to Mr. Webb, Labor, WA, who on behalf of the Opposition had raised for discussion as a matter of urgency, the "failure of the Government to take any action to correct the existing transport anomaly."
Following the announcement of the Commonwealth contribution, Mr. Bolte said, in Melbourne, that he had given instructions that the survey should be started immediately.
Some of the survey work and some of the construction was likely to be done by private contractors as the VR's engineering staff were fully engaged in current programs.
The survey would determine the jobs that would take the most time; materials required; alterations necessary to existing bridges and embankments, and what could best be done by private contractors.
The survey is expected to be completed in two or three months and construction could be started shortly afterwards, if finance was made available.
The standard gauge line will parallel the existing VR broad gauge line from Wodonga to Mangalore. On the next stage to Broadmeadows one of the existing broad gauge lines will be converted to standard gauge, and this procedure will be continued in respect of the double track freight line from Broadmeadows to Albion and on to Dynon freight yard, outside Melbourne. A standard gauge passenger line will connect with Spencer Street station, Melbourne.
The cost of the conversion scheme is estimated at £10 million, and it is expected that the change-over will save £800,000 per year on tranship charges at Albury. The Wentworth report estimated the project would be completed in from three to five years, and that it would eventually gain 1½ million tons of interstate freight for the VR and NSW systems and earn a profit of £3 million.
Reprinted from Railway Transportation, May, 1957
Australian advices state that the proposals to construct an electric traction system in Essendon and Flemington, suburbs of Melbourne, have at last received the sanction of the Victoria Government authorities.
The scheme is fostered by A. E. Morgan, at one time Premier of Western Australia. The municipal authorities of the districts concerned will obtain an order in council for the construction of the tramways, thereafter transferring their powers to Mr. Morgan, who undertakes to commence the erection of the power house within three months, to start the remaining works within nine months, and to have the lines within operation within twenty-one months from date of the transfer, which is expected to be made without delay.
The Australasian electrical engineering and contracting firm of Noyes Brothers, which represents the Westinghouse and Brill interests in the Antipodes, is after the contract for the construction and equipment of the lines, which it is estimated will represent an initial expenditure of some $500,000.
Reprinted from Street Railway Journal, 25 June, 1904
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